August 13, 2014
"This book, an outstanding piece of scholarship comparing the two varied political and social contexts of Germany and India, challenges the dominant notion of the convergence of corporate practices unleashed by globalisation. Presenting a pioneering inquiry, it makes a seminal and significant contribution to the substantive area."
‘The world is flat’ – this popular account of current developments celebrates transnationally operating companies as great ‘equalisers’. Such tendencies of homogenisation come up against limits, however. Focussing on Indo-German project work in software programming, this study analyses the complex interrelations between the business models of transnationally operating companies and localised standards of regulating reproduction. They result in marked differences between the ways in which labour power is utilised in the companies’ Indian and German subsidiaries. The world is not ‘flat’ – instead, transnational corporate activities draw upon the combined and uneven development of world regions and reinforce difference rather than reducing it.
- The Concepts - Regulating Scenarios and Pathways of Transnationalisation
- The Spatial Binding of Labour Power
- The Contractual Binding of Labour Power
- Qualifications - Requirements and Profiles
- In Lieu of a Summary - Corporate Utilisation of Labour Power and Capitalist Development
July 23, 2014
THE YEAR OF BLOOD. ESSAYS ON THE REVOLT OF 1857
HARDBACK. 174 PP
ISBN NO. 978-93-83166-00-8
PUB DATE: DECEMBER 2013
TENTATIVE PRICE: RS. 550
'An engrossing collection of essays by one of the foremost historians of the events of 1857 . Rudrangshu Mukherjee writes about the world of the purabiya sipahis (including the famous Mangal Pandey), the popular upsurge and the violence of the Ghadar with a sureness of touch that is rare among professional writers of history. A popular academic book with an assured shelf life'
Professor, Department of History, University of Delhi
‘Rudrangshu Mukherjee has firmly established his reputation as a historian of the 1857 Revolt. Now, his essays will surely enhance our understanding of the turbulent phase in our history. They merit serious attention.
Nehru Fellow and former Vice Chancellor, Jamia Millia Islamia
The Year of Blood: Essays on the Revolt of 1857
Rudrangshu Mukherjee’s essays on the Revolt of 1857 have been brought under one cover in The Year of Blood: Essays on the Revolt of 1857. The book traces the eminent historian’s changing perception of the idea of the Revolt, from his undergraduate days to the present.
The Revolt of 1857 was a passionate phase in Indian history and the quality of writing in this book reflects this intensity. Violence has rarely been described with so much realism and subtlety. The imaginative use of primary source materials add clarity to accounts such as the massacre in Satichaura Ghat and the trial of Mangal Pandey.
Rudrangshu Mukherjee places the ‘soldier-peasant’ at the forefront of the Revolt. In lucid prose, he is able to unravel the motives, strategies and organization skills of the mutineers, while exposing the layers of complexity that defined the relationship between the rulers and the subjugated.
The horrific killings described in depth in this book cover specific parts of Uttar Pradesh; however, the mood of the wider holocaust is captured through the detailed captions which describe several illustrations, most of which are from private collections.
List of Illustrations
Introduction: In Pursuit of a Revolt
The Azimgarh Proclamation and Some Questions on the Revolt of 1857 in the Northwestern Provinces
‘Satan Let loose Upon Earth’: the Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857
The Sipahi and the Sepoy Mutinies
Two Intellectual Traditions of the Revolt of 1857: A study of Popular Resistance
Responses to 1857 in the Centenary Year
MANGAL PANDEY : BRAVE MARTYR OR ACCIDENTAL HERO?
29 March 1857
Life of a Sepoy
The Greased Cartridge
Chapati, Rumours and Prophesy
About the Author: Rudrangshu Mukherjee is the Editor, Editorial Pages, The Telegraph. He taught in the department of history, University of Calcutta and held visiting appointments at Princeton University, Manchester University and the University of California, Santa Cruz. He is the author and editor of a number of books that include Spectre of Violence: The Massacres in Kanpur in 1857, Delhi, 2007 (1998), New Delhi: The Making of a Capital (co-authored) Delhi, 2009, The Penguin Gandhi Reader (edited), Delhi, 1993, Awadh in Revolt, 1857-58: A Study of Popular Resistance (Delhi, 1984; repr. Delhi and London, 2001), and Dateline, 1857: Revolt Against the Raj ,Delhi, 2008 among others.
March 12, 2014
(AURUM BOOKS IS AN IMPRINT OF SOCIAL SCIENCE PRESS)
By Anita Agnihotri
Translated by Arunava Sinha
140 pp. Paperback
Modified price: Rs. 355.00
Anita Agnihotri has a keen eye for the injustices, both gross and subtle, perpetrated on the rural poor. She describes the various scenarios of poverty with a clinical eye, without lament and pathos, but in minute, breathless detail. The woman prisoners, the exploited weaver girl, the overworked policeman in a district infested with militants – these and many other characters come to life in their abused humanity. The facts alone are an accusation. This is the protest literature of our age, spoken in a frosty matter-of-fact style which makes the blood curdle.
Martin Kämpchen is a German writer and scholar, based in India.
July 5, 2013
German Writings on India and South Asia
This Series brings together a body of work on India and South Asia from Germany. The books in this series will reflect Gerrnan scholarship in the social sciences, and literature, made available to the English speaking world often for the first time.
CULTURAL ENCOUNTERS IN INDIA
The Local Co-workers of the Tranquebar Mission, 18th to 19th Centuries
566pp | 215x140 mm | Hardback
Tentative Pub price: 750
Tentative pub date: March 2013
‘This appearance of Heike Liebau’s magisterial work in English is a welcome event. Profound in originality, fresh findings and perceptions, thoroughness and tight analysis, this represents a significant contribution to historical understandings of India. Beyond her grasp of Eurocentric historiographies lies her remarkably astute command of Indocentric perspectives. Sharply etched micro-historical features of conflicting cultural influences on local societies in South India are neatly fitted into wider contexts under the rising imperium of the (British) East India Company.’
Department of History, University of Wisconsin - Madison
International Bulletin, Vol. 33, No.4, October 2009
This is an award winning book
Cultural Encounters in India : The Local Co-workers of the Tranquebar Mission, 18th to 19th Centuries is an English translation of a German book which has won the Geisteswissenschaften International award for excellence in scholarship. It is now available for the first time to the English speaking world.
The history of social and religious encounter in 18th century South India is narrated through fascinating biographies and day to day lives of Indian workers who worked in thefirst organised Protestant mission enterprise in India, the Tranquebar Mission (1706-1845). The Mission was originally initiated by the Danish King Friedrich IV, but sustained by religious authorities and mission organisations and supporters in Germany and Britain.
The book challenges the notion that Christianity in colonial India was basically imposed from the outside. It also questions the approaches to mission history concentrating exclusively on European mission societies. Liebau maintains that the social history of 18th century South India cannot be understood without considering the contributions of the local converts and mission co-workers who played an important role from the very beginning in the context of Tranquebar Mission.
Approaches to an Intermediary Group
History of the Tranquebar Mission
Local Mission Workers
The Hierarchical Structure of the Mission Organization
Dialogue and Conflict
The Role of Local Mission Employees in Education
Women in the Tranquebar Mission
Indian Mission Employees and European-Indian Cultural Contact
Biographies of South Indian country pastors
Illustrations and Maps
Note on the spelling of Indian terms
Heike Liebau is Senior Research Fellow at the Zentrum Moderner Orient (ZMO) in Berlin. Her research interest lies in the history of cultural encounters, biographical studies and questions of knowledge production. She is the co-editor of Halle and the Beginning of Protestant Christianity in India (with Y. Vincent Kumaradoss and Andreas Gross), Halle 2006; and of The World in World Wars: Experiences, Perceptions and Perspectives from Africa and Asia (with Katrin Bromber, Katharina Lange, Dyala Hamzah, Ravi Ahuja), Leiden, Boston 2010.
January 24, 2013
SCHOLARS AND PROPHETS
Sociology of India from France 19th – 20thcenturies
"… Scholars and Prophets is a work of immense erudition guided by a strong sense of purpose (...) The study is a targeted attempt to uncover the origins of Dumont's analysis of the caste system in his Homo hierarchicus."
Rosane Rocher, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
Journal of the American Oriental Society
“This book, which deals with the representations of India in France, serves as a landmark model of historical sociology of human and social sciences"
French Writings on India and South Asia
This Series brings together a body of work from France on India and South Asia. These books will reflect the social sciences and literature, made available to the English speaking world often for the first
This is the first book in the Series.
Scholars and Prophets: Sociology of India from France 19th – 20th centuries is being translated from L’invention de I’ Inde. Entre ésotérisme et science, and deals with the historical genesis of the long and rich scholarship on India in France since the beginning of 19thcentury, with particular reference to the work of Louis Dumont. It considers the works of scholars and the essayists, poets, or esotericists who published on India and shows that Dumont has been influenced by both groups. This understanding illuminates the main criticism that is still addressed to Homo hierarchicus, that in this book Dumont mistook the internal Brahminical view point on the caste system for a sociological view.
In the last chapter, the book contrasts Dumont’s work with issues raised by McKim Marriott’s project and the Subaltern Studies from India. It defends that the core issue dealt with by all scholars is the epistemic status given to scientific knowledge of Indian society.
In the course of explaining the French intellectual tradition, the author relates many fascinating interactions and little known anecdotes of famous men and women which capture the intellectually vibrant climate of the time. Both scholars and students of the social sciences will find this book very useful.
Introduction: Genesis of the sociology of India
Prologue: René Daumal and the autofiction of the cultural field
The Genesis of a Savant Milieu (1795-1927)
Chapter 1. The struggle for academic legitimacy
Chapter 2. Orientalist knowledge and prophetic discourses
Chapter 3. The Struggle for institutional autonomy
Scholars and Prophets (The interwar period)
Chapter 4. The field of scholarship on India in the 1930s
Chapter 5. Scholarly practices
Chapter 6. Prophetic strategies
Chapter 7. Hinduism as a disciplinary issue
Social Science and Indigenous Science (Second half of the 20th century)
Chapter 8. Louis Dumont and the indigenous science
Chapter 9. Louis Dumont and the cunning of reason
Chapter 10. The Avatara of scholarship on India
Conclusion. Sociology put to the test of India
Postscript. Note on the construction of a research subject
Appendix: Multi Correspondence Analysis
Postface to the English-language edition
List of documents, tables, figures
Sources and bibliography
Roland Lardinois is a sociologist, Director of Research at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Paris (France). He is Fellow at the Centre d’études de l’Inde et de l’Asie du Sud at the Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris.He has published works on the history of family in India, historical demography of South India, history of French scholarship on India, and edited a volume of correspondence exchanged between Sylvain Lévi and Russian Orientalist scholars.
576 pp | 215x140 mm | Hardback
Tentative Published price: Rs 795
Pub date: Jan 2013
November 15, 2012
World Pharmacy and India
The Politics of the Pharmaceutical Industry and Access to Medicines: World Pharmacy and India examines this important industry from different economic, social and political perspectives. Topics covered include the implications of TRIPS-compliant intellectual property rights, the role of flexibilities under TRIPS, the market regulation system, the role of Indian firms in exporting HIV/AIDS medications to Africa, the issue of free trade agreements, the power and reach of foreign pharmaceutical multinationals in India’s domestic market, and the sustainability of India as a major generics supplier.
Hans Lofgren is Associate Professor in Politics and Policy Studies, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. His publications include, with P. Sarangi (eds) The Politics and Culture of Globalisation: India and Australia (Social Science Press, New Delhi, 2009); with M. Leahy & E. de Leeuw (eds) Democratising Health: Consumer Groups in the Policy Process (Edward Elgar, 2011).
1. The Politics of the Pharmaceutical Industry and Access to Medicines - Hans Löfgren
2. Challenges of Regulation of Medicines in India - S. Srinivasan & Anant Phadke
3. CIPLA: Patients before Patents - Neelam Raaj
4. Systemic Failure of Regulation: The Political Economy of Pharmaceutical and Bulk Drug Manufacturing - G. Vijay
5. TRIPS Flexibilities and Access to Patented Medicines in India - Narayanan Lalitha
6. India’s Free Trade Agreements : Implications for Access to Medicines in India and the Global South - Kajal Bhardwaj
7. At any price? Boehringer Ingelheim, Bayer HealthCare and Baxter in India - Christiane Fischer and Claudia Jenkes
8. Trends and Prospects for India as a Global Generic Player - Deepak Kumar Jena & Poduri Balaram
9. The Indian Patent Law and Access to Antiretroviral Drugs in Sub-Saharan Africa - Christiane Fischer
10. Accessing Medicines in Developing Economies - Tu Thanh Nguyen
11. The Politics of AIDS Treatment in Brazil - André de Mello e Souza
12. Financing Pharmaceutical Research and Development: Alternatives to the Patent System - Philip Soos and Hans Lofgren
13. Post-script - Hans Löfgren
Pub price: Rs 725
Pub date: Nov 2012
July 25, 2012
ECONOMICS AND ITS STORIES
"Amal Sanyal is an economist with enormous academic and policy experience. His telling of economics and its stories is sure to educate and entertain, and so draw more young people to the subject."
The narrative of the book starts with the birth of economics from societal anxieties of pre-industrial Europe. It then follows up its growth into a self-conscious and assertive discipline. Along with the account, Amal Sanyal, with his characteristic lucidity of style, is able to breathe life into the colourful 18th, 19th and 20th century gurus such as Smith, Ricardo, Marx, Walras, Keynes. The narrative strings together the events and traditions of the era of these mentors with the economics they developed and controversies around them. In the process the book explains the concepts that are indispensable for understanding our economic world today.
Economics and its Stories has chapters on the theory of markets; market failure and the role of the government; the labour market and unemployment; money and finance; international economics and globalisation; and economic development.
The book should appeal to the interested reader as well as students of economics.
1. Introduction 1
2. Markets, Efficiency, and Adam Smith 23
3. Many Forms of Market: Sellers Big and Small 53
4. Markets Often Fail and So Do Governments 90
5. Unemployment and J.M. Keynes 116
6. After Keynes 148
7. Money, Banks, and Finance 175
8. Trade, Foreign Investment and Migration 217
9. Economic Growth and Development 262
10. Conclusion 316
Amal Sanyal teaches economics at Lincoln University, New Zealand. He has taught and interacted with many other universities, including Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, where he has worked for many years. He held the State Bank of India Chair on public policy for some time and was an economic advisor to the government of Mauritius for a number of years. Sanyal has very wide research interests and has published a large number of research articles and a few books. His current research includes issues of governance, corruption and public policy.
332pp | 215x140 mm | Hardback
Published price: Rs 650
ECONOMICS, BUSINESS STUDIES
Pub date 16 July 2012
June 26, 2012
"Menon argues that central to the popularity and success of Hindu nationalism is its willingness to accommodate groups whose beliefs and practices may be incongruous with the movement's mainstream. . . . An excellent study of a timely issue."
"Everyday Nationalism is an important book for understanding the dynamics and rationale of hindutva ideology. Kalyani Menon's brilliant reconstruction reveals women as the key to the Hindu nationalist goal to establish India as a Hindu nation."
—Missiology: An International Review
"Menon provides a vivid portrait of the everyday lives of Hindu nationalist women. A witty, candid, unassuming ethnographer, she combines critical self-reflection with critical insights into the women she studies. Everyday Nationalism is an important contribution to scholarship in women's studies, South Asian studies, and anthropology."
—Amrita Basu, Amherst College
Everyday Nationalism contends that the Hindu nationalist movement's power to attract and maintain constituencies with incongruous beliefs and practices is key to its growth. The book reveals that the movement's success is facilitated by its ability to become meaningful in people's daily lives, resonating with their constructions of the past, appealing to their fears in the present, presenting itself as the protector of the country's citizens, and inventing traditions through the use of Hindu texts, symbols, and rituals to unite people in a sense of belonging to a nation.
Note on Transliteration
Chapter One: Everyday Histories
Chapter Two: National Insecurities
Chapter Three: Violent Dharma
Chapter Four: Benevolent Hindus
Chapter Five: Fun, Games, and Deadly Politics
Chapter Six: Acceptable Transgressions
Kalyani Devaki Menon teaches religious studies at DePaul University.
April 4, 2012
South Asian Prisoners in World War I Germany
‘This is a valuable collection of articles that gives access to a rich archive in the German language, which had remained largely inaccessible to an Anglophone readership . The use of that archive can help broaden the approach to the problem of the participation of Indian soldiers in the First World War on the Western front, a topic which has not yet attracted sufficient scholarly attention.’
Centre d'Etudes de l'Inde et de l'Asie du Sud
Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales
The CD Rom attached to this book goes beyond the written word. It includes the Hindi and Urdu editions of the propagandistic camp journal Hindostan, transcripts of sound recordings in which the sailors and soldiers speak in their native tongues about their experiences as they are taken from place to place, perhaps in the hope that these might reach their families. There is nostalgia in their voices as they sing songs about their homes, while acutely critical comments on their lives in ‘vilayat’ give the lie to the notion of the apolitical peasant-soldier.
The CD Rom also includes pictorial documents of paintings by the soldiers, and some powerful photographs of war camps in Zossen and Wünsdorf. The CD Rom also carries the Bibliography which is a special feature of this book. It is both extensive and rich, covering rare books which will be of enormous value to scholars and interested readers.
Introduction: Franziska Roy, Heike Liebau
Part I: Histories of the Prisoners
Lost Engagements? Traces of South Asian Soldiers in German Captivity, 1915 -1918: Ravi Ahuja
South Asian Civilian Prisoners of War in First World War Germany : Franziska Roy
The German Foreign Office, Indian Emigrants and Propaganda Efforts Among the ‘Sepoys’ : Heike Liebau
German Perceptions of Enemy Colonial Troops, 1914–1918 : Christian Koller
South Asian Soldiers and German Academics: Anthropological, Linguistic and Musicological Field Studies in Prison Camps: Britta Lange
Part II: Histories of the Sources
Recordings of South Asian Languages and Music in the Lautarchiv of the Humboldt University Berlin : Jürgen Mahrenholz
Indian Prisoners of War in World War One – Photographs as Source Material: Margot Kahleyss
Hindostan - A Camp Newspaper for South-Asian Prisoners of World War One in Germany: Heike Liebau
Index of Persons
Index of Places
The Camp newspaper Hindostan Hindi edition
The Camp newspaper Hindostan Urdu edition
Voices of the Prisoners: Files and Recordings from the Lautararchiv, Berlin
List of Recordings and Personal Details of South Asian Prisoners in the Lautarchiv, Berlin
Photos from the Prisoner of War Camps in Zossen and Wünsdorf
Franziska Roy is doctoral candidate at the Department of History of the University of Warwick.
Heike Liebau is Senior Research Fellow at the Center for Modern Oriental Studies (Berlin).
Ravi Ahuja is professor of modern Indian history and the director of the Centre for Modern Indian Studies at the University of Göttingen.
February 15, 2012
4 VICTORIA TERRACE
Memoirs of a Surgeon
Subir K. Chatterjee
288pp 12 Illustrations 215x140 mm Hardback
Pub price Rs 625
SOCIOLOGY OF MEDICINE, MEDICAL TRAVELOGUE
Pub date Jan 2012
‘This is an account of the journey through life of one of the foremost paediatric surgeons in this country. To those of a similar vintage it will evoke fond memories of a late twentieth century Calcutta, where there was stylish living, albeit for a few, and a surgical career path that has all but disappeared which consisted of a basic degree here followed by further training in the United Kingdom culminating in the passing of the dreaded and prestigious FRCS examination. Many then went to the United States for advanced training as did the author where he worked with many of the greats in the field.’
Apart from being a doctor’s travelogue, there is hardly any major city in the world that Dr Chatterjee has not visited, this book also unfolds an extremely perceptive description of one of our most important social institutions: medical colleges and hospitals. We also get an inside view of the medical profession itself, one of the most politicized at every level, but not without enduring friendships and knowledge sharing.
These pages contain some tragic stories of dedicated brilliant doctors, who become the victims of their own profession. There are also accounts of almost miraculous surgery that saves patients, all but dead, and often just a few hours old.
The book ends with a reflection on the ethical dilemmas inherent in the medical profession in general and pediatric surgery in particular.
Professor Subir K. Chatterjee is a major figure in world pediatric surgery and has pioneered the speciality in the eastern region of the country, especially, in the city of Calcutta (now Kolkata) and continues at 85 years to dedicate his life to treating patients and teaching surgery to his students. Some of his students have become leaders in their fields. Professor Chatterjee has authored numerous learned papers in national and international journals and is also the author of Anorectal Malformations (Oxford and Delhi, 2006).
Prologue: Two Memorable Days
1. My Homes
2. My School
3. My College
4. Life in the UK
5. My Hospitals: Nil Ratan Sarkar Medical College, Calcutta
6. My Hospitals: Ramkrishna Mission Seva Pratisthan, Calcutta
7. Pediatric Surgery, My Passport: North America and Europe
8. Pediatric Surgery, My Passport: Australia, Africa and Asia
9 . Indian Travelogue
10. The Park
11. Park Medical Research Centre
12. Ethical Dilemmas of Pediatric Practice
THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION
Mobile Value Added Services in India
Mukesh Kumar and Ram Kumar Kakani
412pp 215x140 mm Hardback 14 illustrations
Published price Rs 695
TELECOMMUNICATIONS, BUSINESS STUDIES
Pub date Jan 2012
‘Professor Ram Kumar Kakani is one of India’s most respected academics /researchers in the field of business. This is a well researched work. It starts with introducing the Telecommunications sector, then analyses all relevant domestic and global aspects, focusing on the impact of technological advancement and regulatory environment on mobile value added services (mVAS). Finally, it proposes possible business models and future scenarios of Indian mVAS industry. In fact to my knowledge no book from India achieved all this.’
Professor Debashis Chatterjee
‘After reading this compelling work, the reader will appreciate the evolving linkages and associated uncertainties in the emerging Indian mVAS industry. The authors seamlessly demystify the complex and evolving linkages of technology, regulator, and savvy entrepreneurship led models. The sections on Business Modeling and Scenario Planning lead the reader to appreciate the complicated maze of the mVAS sector. It is a must-read book for telecom professionals, policy makers and management studies students.’
R K Mishra
Principal Advisor, TRAI
The telecommunications industry continues to grow at a formidable pace and within it, the mobile value added services (mVAS) industry displays impressive potential for influencing the lives of millions of people. Driven by technology and innovation, experts believe that the mVAS industry has even greater possibilities than electronic commerce (e-Commerce). The role of technologies and regulations is taken into account in the analysis of the Indian mobile telecom industry. This is followed by proposing possible business models and future scenarios for mVAS in India.
The Telecommunications Revolution: Mobile Value Added Services in India studies the mVAS industry in depth. It compares mVAS trends in India with those in other parts of the world like the USA and Europe, Japan, South Korea and China.
This lucidly written book will be of great interest not only to the student of telecommunications and business studies, but also to policy makers, industry professionals and the interested general reader.
Section I: Introduction
1. Introduction to Indian Telecommunications Industry
2. Unwinding of Telecom Technical Jargon
3. Mobile Economics
Section II: Mobile VAS Industry in India and Other Markets
4. Mobile Value Added Services (mVAS) Industry: Young offspring of Mobile Industry
5. India in a Global Context
Section III: Role of Technologies and Regulations
6. Role of Technologies in shaping the mVAS Industry
7. Role of Regulation in shaping the mVAS Industry
Section IV: The Analysis of Indian Mobile Telecommunications with focus on VAS
8. Indian Mobile industry: An Empirical Analysis
9. The Mobile VAS Industry: Structure, Value Chain and Stakeholders
Section V: Business Models and Scenario Planning
10. Business Models in the mVAS Industry
11. Future of the Mobile VAS Industry in India
Mukesh Kumar works with the Department of Telecommunications (DOT) and belongs to the Indian Telecom Service (ITS), Government of India. His work background combined with his endeavour at XLRI resulted in his research interests into the world of technology based business modeling especially in mobile telephony. Presently he is working in the capacity of DGM in Kolkata Service Area (KSA), BSNL and has been overseeing wireline Broadband networks and services. He has also been instrumental in introducing Fibre To The Home (FTTH) service in KSA.
Ram Kumar Kakani is Associate Professor in Strategic Management and Finance at XLRI Jamshedpur. His areas of interest include Business Analysis, Business Groups, Corporate Finance and Strategy brought forth by the empirical work on the Indian corporate sector. He has co-authored many text books and other books including the popular Corporate Finance (8/e), Financial Accounting for Management (3/e), and Strategic Thinking. He has also published cases and papers in refereed publications including AI & Society, Decision, Innovation Journal, and Richard Ivey Case Bank.